• FINAL DAY TOPICS – The Year in Review


    1. Cell Structures
      1. organelles vs organs and their functions
      2. main parts: cell membrane; nucleus; mitochondria; vacuole; chloroplast; cell wall
      3. transport – how molecules move
        1. diffusion (passive) uses NO energy. Molecules move from great to less concentrations
        2. active – uses energy. Molecules move from less to great concentrations
      4. Transfer of energy
        1. sun to plants to consumers
        2. photosynthesis – solar to chemical (bonds)
          1. water & carbon dioxide makes glucose & oxygen
        3. respiration- heterotrophs make energy
          1. glucose & oxygen make ENERGY & Carbon dioxide & Water
    1. Enzymes – catalysts that speed up reactions- SHAPE DETERMINES FUNCTION
    1. reactions are determined by pH and temperature
    2. all reactions have OPTIMAL conditions
    1. Nutrientschemicals our bodies need for metabolism (all life functions)
      1. Main Macromolecules & Building Blocks
    1. Carbohydrates – (glucose) is fuel for making energy
    2. Proteins – (amino acids) cell repair; amino acids
    • Lipids – (fatty acid & glycerol) cell formation
    1. Nucleic Acid – (nucleotides ..phosphate, sugar, base) forms DNA
    1. Genetics – DNA is the blueprint/plan/directions for all traits. It can REPLICATE !!
      1. DNA is made of GENES that are determined by 4 bases: A – T     &    C – G
      2. DNA cannot leave the nucleus, so it TRANSCRIBES to mRNA: A – U    &    C – G
      3. These CODONS (three letter combos) then code for Amino Acids that strung together to form a protein (enzyme, antibody, hormone)
      4. MUTATIONS are any changes in the base pairs
    2. Reproduction
      1. Asexual – 1 makes 2 / clones / identical DNA
    1. Mitosis – body cell reproduction /
      1. Sexual - variation / recombination / sperm & egg
    1. Meiosis – sex cell (gamete) reproduction / 1 makes 4
      1. Female Reproductive Cycle - Hormones regulate with negative feedback (estrogen, progesterone, LH, FSH)
    1. Ovary-egg production; estrogen & progesterone made here
    2. Oviduct- connects ovary to uterus; site of fertilization
    • Uterus- muscular, site of embryo implantation
    1. Placenta – exchange of nutrients & waste between mom & fetus
    2. Vagina – birth canal
      1. Male Reproduction – deliver sperm
    1. Testes – produce sperm, testosterone
    2. Vas deferens – connects testes to urethra
    • Glands – nutrients & fluid for sperm
    1. Urethra – tube that leads out of the body (in the penis)




    1. Evolution – change over time
      1. Darwins theory of Natural Selection
    1. Overpopulation
    2. Variation
    • Competition
    1. Adaptation
    2. Survival of the fittest
    1. Ecology  - interaction of the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) in an ecosystem
      1. Limiting factors leads to carrying capacity
      2. Invasive species have no natural predator, overtake an ecosystem
      3. Relationships = Predator-prey            parasite-host
    2. Human Impact – mans’ influence on the environment
      1. Global warming – too much CO2 caused by burning fossil fuels
      2. Ozone depletion – aerosols break it down.  Ozone protects us from U.V. light
      3. Acid rain – sulfur dioxide turns to sulfuric acid in the atmosphere
      4. Deforestation – depletes CO2 using trees, causes global warming
    3. State Labs
    1. Diffusion – dialysis tubing is the cell membrane; filled with glucose and starch; beaker has iodine
      1. Indicators – show the presence of a substance by changing color
      2. Large molecules cannot fit through the membrane
    • Osmosis is the diffusion of water
      1. salt changes the concentration of water and makes it move from higher to lower
      2. eye dropper and paper towel are used to change fluid on a slide
    1. Connections
      1. Pulse rate average & class trend
      2. Muscle fatigue, lactic acid build up
    • Circulatory & Respiratory Systems work together to maintain homeostasis
      1. brings glucose & oxygen to the cells
      2. carbon dioxide away from cells
    1. Experimental design
      1. hypothesis – NEVER a question;..If, Then
        1. using independent (changed) and dependent (measured)variables
      2. control group – (compare) all the same variables EXCEPT the Independent
      3. conclusion – hypothesis in the past tense
    2. Biodiversityfinding a substitute for a plant that produces a wonder drug by comparing traits to three other unknowns… COMMON ANCESTRY
      1. variety of life forms helps keep ecosystems stable
        1. Loss of biodiversity is BAD
        2. future source of food or medicine that has not been discovered yet
      2. molecular tests are more reliable than physical tests (more exact or specific)
    • paper chromatography – separates pigments by weight
    1. gel electrophoresis – separates DNA or proteins by size (restriction enzymes)
    2. amino acid sequence – changing a BASE doesn’t always change the amino acid
    1. Beaks of Finches – concepts of Natural Selection
      1. Nature determines what traits are better suited for survival
      2. Those that are better adapted can survive and reproduce, passing on those traits
    • Sexual reproduction (recombination) causes variations in a species that leads to adaptive traits.
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  • As the fourth quarter comes to a close your final assessment has been posted to Castle. Review subject matter from our notes and Final topics Review.  

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  • shark

    Hello everyone, I hope you & your loved ones are all doing well during these tough times.  Since Q3 is over we are looking forward to Q4.  If you earned an Incomplete (I) for Q3, I have sent you a message on Remind and have provided you with work in your Castle Learning.  If you have not yet joined Remind the codes are listed on this page, stay connected.  In order to pass Q3 you need to make up any missing work & complete the new make up Castle assignments by May 28th & let me know.  

    Q4 assignments include the Earth Day assignment, so if you have not done so get it to me by Friday.  All work going forward will adhere to due dates once again.  Please keep in touch:  I am available via Remind or email so make sure you contact me with questions or concerns. Stay healthy and remember always moving forward! :)  

    “The strength of the team is each individual member. The strength of each member is the team.”
    Phil Jackson

    To all my classes: I miss you guys.  I hope you & your families are healthy & safe Please stay home & practice social distancing if you must go out, so that we can get through this together :)








    Hello All,  I hope everyone is healthy and safe. My powerschool gradebook is online and available for you to see your current Q3 average & assignments. All grades are due by April 30th.  Any work that was not completed by this Wednesday, the 29th by noon, will count as a zero for the third quarter.  I have opened all the castle assignments so that they can be made up.  If you make up an assignment to change your grade, you need to let me know via remind or email so it can be changed in my gradebook.  These assignments will count towards your 3rd marking period grade.  I am available via Remind or email so make sure you contact me with questions or concerns. Stay connected and remember always moving forward! Stay healthy & Be well :)  

    “I think that the good and the great are only separated by the willingness to sacrifice.”
    -- Kareem Abdul-Jabbar

    " So for tonight, we pray for what we know can be. And on this day, we hope for what we still can't see. It's up to us,to be the change, and even though this world needs so much more, there's so much to be thankful for." -Thankful by Josh Groban.

    To all my classes: I miss you guys.  I hope you & your families are healthy & safe Please stay home & practice social distancing if you must go out, so that we can get through this together :) 


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    Remind App Log Ins & Codes   Text 81010 the code that matches your class or get the app and use the corresponding class and code 

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